US Federal Regulatory Landscape
of Blockchain Technology

Atlanta Federal Reserve

August 2014:
White Paper: “Making Change What Bitcoin Could Mean to the Payments Industry”: change-what-bitcoin-could-mean.pdf

October 2015; Revised February 2016:
Retail Payment Risk Forum Working Paper: “Banking Bitcoin-Related Businesses: A Primer for Managing BSA/AML Risks”, by Douglas King: businesses.pdf

Commodity Futures Trading Commission


June 2, 2016:
Press Release: “CFTC Orders Bitcoin Exchange Bitfinex to Pay $75,000 for Offering Illegal Off- Exchange Financed Retail Commodity Transactions and Failing to Register as a Futures Commission Merchant”:

May 17, 2017:
Press Release: “CFTC Launches LabCFTC as Major FinTech Initiative”:

July 24, 2017;
Press Release: “CFTC Grants DCO Registration to LedgerX LLC”:

Conference of State Bank Supervisors

April 26, 2017:
Press Release: “CSBS Files Complaint Against Comptroller of the Currency”:

May 12, 2017:
Press Release: “CSBS Statement on New York Department of Financial Services Lawsuit Against OCC”:

Congressional Research Service


July 2014:
Bitcoin: Questions, Answers, and Analysis of Legal Issues

Federal Reserve


December 2016:
Working Paper: “Distributed Ledger Technology in Payments, Clearing, and Settlement”:

March 3, 2017:
Speech: “Innovation, Technology, and the Payments System,” given at the Yale Law School Center on March 3, 2017, by Governor Jerome H. Powell:

October 7, 2016:
Speech: “Distributed Ledger Technology: Implications for Payments, Clearing, and Settlement,” given at the Institute of International Finance Annual Meeting on Ocober 7, 2016, by Governor Lael Brainard:

Federal Trade Commission


June 22, 2015:
Consumer Information Blog: “Before paying with bitcoins…”:

Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (Department of the Treasury)


June 12, 2015:
Report: “National Money Laundering Risk Assessment (2015)” (pg. 57 speaks about virtual currencies):

Financial Industry Regulatory Authority


March 31, 2017:
Chamber of Digital Commerce Comments Letter: “Comments on FINRA’s Report on Distributed Ledger Technology: Implications of Blockchain for the Securities Industry”:

January 2017:
Official Report: “Report on Distributed Ledger Technology: Implications of Blockchain for the Securities Industry”:

Financial Stability Oversight Council
Government Accountability Office


April 2017:
Report: “Financial Technology – Information on Subsectors and Regulatory Oversight”:

Internal Revenue Service


November 30, 2016:
Release: “Court Authorizes Service of John Doe Summons Seeking the Identities of U.S. Taxpayers Who Have Used Virtual Currency”: service-john-doe-summons-seeking-identities-us-taxpayers-who-have-used

National Institute of Standards and Technology

June 22, 2017:
Guidelines: “NIST Digital Identity Guidelines 800-63-3”:

New York Department of Financial Services

May 12, 2017:
Press Release: “Statement by Superintendent Maria T. Vullo On The Department Of Financial Services Lawsuit Challenging The OCC’s Unauthorized Decision to Grant “Special Purpose” National Bank Charters To Undefined “Fintech” Companies”:

Office of the Comptroller of the Currency


December 2016:
Report: “Exploring Special Purpose National Bank Charters for Fintech Companies”: bank-charters-for-fintech.pdf

December 2, 2016
Remarks: “Special Purpose National Bank Charters for Fintech Companies,” given at Georgetown University Law Center on December 2, 2016, by Thomas J. Curry:

December 20, 2016:
Federal Register: “Relationships for Uninsured National Banks”:

March 15, 2017:
Release: “OCC Issues Draft Licensing Manual Supplement for Evaluating Charter Applications From Financial Technology Companies, Will Accept Comments Through April 14”:

July 19, 2017:
Speech: Remarks by Keith A. Noreika, Acting Comptroller of the Currency, given at Exchequer Club on July 19, 2017: 82.pdf

Securities and Exchange Commission


March 10, 2017:
Release: Order Disapproving a Proposed Rule Change: “Self-Regulatory Organizations; Bats BZX Exchange, Inc.; Order Disapproving a Proposed Rule Change, as Modified by Amendments No. 1 and 2, to BZX Rule 14.11(e)(4), Commodity-Based Trust Shares, to List and Trade Shares Issued by the Winklevoss Bitcoin Trust”:

March 28, 2017:
Release: Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; “Order Disapproving a Proposed Rule Change, as Modified by Amendment No. 1, Relating to the Listing and Trading of Shares of the SolidX Bitcoin Trust under NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.201”:

June 30, 2017:
Litigation Release: “Securities and Exchange Commission v. Renwick Haddow, et al., Civil Action No. 17-cv-4950 (S.D.N.Y., filed June 30, 2017) – SEC Files Fraud Charges in Bitcoin and Office Space Investment Schemes”:

SEC Enforcement Cases

July 11, 2016:
Administrative Order: “In the Matter of Bitcoin Investment Trust and SecondMarket, Inc.”:

Administrative Proceeding: “SecondMarket, Inc. and Bitcoin Investment Trust (BIT) Settle Charges Relating to Unlawful Redemptions of BIT Shares during a Continuous Distribution”:

February 3, 2017:
Release: “Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating to the Listing and Trading Shares of the Bitcoin Investment Trust under NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.201”:

April 11, 2017:
Administrative Order: “In the Matter of Sunshine Capital, Inc. and Jimmy Wayne Anderson”:

Release [Regarding Sunshine Capital, Inc.]: “Securities Exchange Act of 1934, Release No. 80435”:

U.S. Attorney’s Office Lawsuit Against Renwick Haddow

June 30, 2017:
Press Release: “Charges Unsealed Against British Citizen For Defrauding Investors Of More Than $36 Million”

Uniform Law Commission
United Nations
World Bank

September 22, 2016:
Report: “The Inclusion of Blockchain”: Symposium-Slides.pdf

June 16, 2016:
World Bank Blog: “Blockchain technology: Redefining trust for a global, digital economy”:

May 2017:
Report: “Can Blockchain Technology Address De-Risking in Emerging Markets?”:

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